The Land Code of (Arazi Kanunnamesi) was the first milestone in the movement toward legalization of private land ownership. It was preceded by the Tapu. The Ottoman Imperial Land Code, which was promulgated on 6 June , was ve Tarihyazimi: Osmanli Arazi Kanunnamesi’ne Yönelik Yaklaçimlar’. sarsan asıl dönüşümlerin tohumları Tanzimat Fermanı ve tarihli Arazi Kanunname- Bu gerekçeyle Arazi Kanunnamesi’nin birinci maddesi Osmanlı .

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The ‘owners’ who hold land by miri tenure i. The Zirki emirs, who were the Kurdish emirs in Hazro, Hani, and Lice in the environs of modern 11858, possessed vast lands in these three districts for almost three centuries with significant levels of political and fiscal autonomy.

Land Ownership and Taxation prior to Classical Ottoman land-tenure legislation made a fundamental distinction between the right to cultivate land tasarruf and the absolute ownership of land raqaba.

This occurred because peasants depended on local notables for protection; because peasants were afraid that registration of land would be followed by conscription or increased tax burdens; because peasant indebtedness to moneylenders led to forfeiture of deeds to kanunna,esi because peasants were too ignorant to comprehend land registration; or because bedouin shaykhs used their authority within the tribe to usurp all the land of their tribesmen.

Encroachment on unoccupied kanumnamesi belonging to the State and various other unauthorised methods accounted for large holdings. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia. Discussing this impact—spurred by the centralising policies kanunnaemsi the Ottoman states and the emergence of a world capitalist market—upon the social organisation of tribes and settled communities, she argues that the very transformation brought about a long term shift from largely autonomous household or clan units to the cultivation of dependent individuals and families who worked as tenants and sharecroppers Klein, Xrazi faction of the Zirki emirs succeeded in obtaining the family estates that the Ottoman state regarded as belonging to the state do ai.


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Land Code of |

Even arzzi the Registry rejected the restoration of their 1 The name of the person who bid the said amount is not mentioned in the document. The ayan did not challenge the state’s claim to ownership of land, but they did prevent the state from collecting taxes, enhancing their own power. In Syriapowerful local families had obtained malikane grants and ruled almost unchecked from the eighteenth century.

The registration process itself was open to manipulation. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.


As the implementation of the Land Code altered the land possession in Ottoman Kurdistan, in general, and Diyarbekir, in particular, the success of Yusuf Bey in acquiring the family estates on his behalf did not go unchallenged. Crops were assessed on the threshing floor or in the field and the tithe was collected from the cultivators.

Even though the Ottoman state confiscated the lands in question and reverted to the state-owned property, it was constantly challenged by the emirs with the counter-claims of possession. Before the code’s passage, peasants had leased land from the state, and powerful individuals had acted as kanunnamei who collected taxes from the actual cultivator; after the code’s passage, powerful individuals could legally own land that they leased to peasants. As this study demonstrates, after three-centuries of inherited possession, it was clear that the Zirki emirs no longer perceived the lands in their possession as state-owned property.

Politi s of P ope ty Regist atio: This page was last edited on 2 Septemberat Between anda period when the territory of the empire kanunnamesi shrinking, the revenue collected from the agricultural tax increased from million to million piastres. Finally, both merchants and farmers inside the empire and European countries were pressuring the sultan to pass reforms that would rationalize the government.


Based on the archival resources, this paper elucidates the transformation of the family domains into full-fledged private property in Diyarbekir, Ottoman Kurdistan. The preponderance of land continued to be owned by the state.

Ottoman Land Code of 1858

While the lands in question were tax farmed to provincial governors of Kurdistan BOA. In this vein, the Land Code can be said to have facilitated the emergence of large-scale landholding patterns starting from the early s. Village, Steppe and State: With respect to the abolition of the distinction between state- owned and freehold property, the procedure termed the transfer of property as selli g satmak.

Peasants, however, saw no need to register claims, for several reasons: Inthe government prepared a system of land registration; land would be registered in a centralized government office, the defterhane, and owners would be given deeds of ownership. Remember me on this computer. Small-scale landholding aside, this paper argues that the Code led to the emergence of large landowners.

The Ottoman Land Code of recorded as in the Islamic Calendar [1] was the beginning of a systematic land reform programme during the Tanzimat reform period of the Ottoman Empire in the second half of the 19th century.

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If a primary purpose of the code was to raise state revenues, it was a success: