Automated image analysis software for assessing banding or orientation of Microstructures in dual phase steel. For Annual Book of ASTM approved in Last previous edition approved in as E – 01(). Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s . ASTM E_ – Designation: E – 01 Standard Practice for Assessing the Degree of Bandin.

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Examination at higher magnication may be required to identify and classify the constituents present. The length of full cross-section samples, in the deformation direction, should be at least 10 mm 0. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the banding or alignment characteristic at specic locations. Calculate the number of feature interceptions per unit length perpendicular to the deformation axis, N L’, in accordance with: The Knoop indenter is particularly well suited for this work.

If both phases or constituents are banded, with no obvious matrix phase, choose one of the phases constituents for counting. Because the degree of banding or orientation may vary through the product cross section, the test plane should sample the entire cross section.

For isolated particles in a matrix, the number of feature intersections will equal twice the number of feature interceptions. Summary of Practice 4. Either Wstm or PL, or both see Curren Cur rentt edi editio tion n app approv roved ed Jan Jan. Sampling and Test Specimens 7. N Interceptions—Count the number of individual particles, grains, or patches of the constituent of interest crossed d1268 the grid lines. If the product form is too large to permit preparation of full cross atm, the samples prepared at the desired locations should have a minimum polished s1268 area of mm2 0.

This method is only applicable to as-quenched, fully martensitic steels minor levels of retained austenite will be present in higher carbon steels with carbon contents from 0. Th Thee st ster ereo eolo logi gica call me meth thod odss ma may y als also o be us used ed to ch char aract acter erize ize no nonn-ba band nded ed microst micr ostruc ructur tures es with seco second nd pha phase se con constit asfm uents ts ori oriente ented d elo elonga ngated ted in var varyin ying g deg degree reess in the deformation direction.


Tangent hits are counted as one half an interception. Tests should be conducted according to the guidelines given in Test Methods E When a test line is tangent to the particle, grain, or patch of interest, N is counted as 12and P as 1. Norma Astm e astm e Stereological methods are not suitable for measuring individual features, instead sstm standard measurement procedures to dene the feature size.

Measurements are made with the test lines parallel and perpendicular to the deformation direction. Historical Version s – view previous versions of standard.

ASTM E (Reapproved ) Ferrite Banding Standard – PDF Free Download

A superscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or e268. The most common example of banding is the layered ferrite-pearlite structure of wrought low-carbon and low-carbon alloy steels. If the product form is too large to aztm preparation of full cross sections, the samples prepared at the desired locations should have a minimum polished surface area of mm 2 0. ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard.

Generally, it is best to count the banded phase present in least amount. The degree of carbon segregation may be estimated by this method and reported for such specimens.

The microindentation hardness method may be used for such structures. For small segregates, it may not be possible to obtain ve or more hardness tests values. Microstructure of steel and banding standard Asstm, this degree of uncertainty is not excessive and is less than can be achieved by micro-analytical analysis methods.

The load is adjusted so that the indent can be kept completely within the bands. The difference between the mean spacing and the mean free path provides an estimate of the mean width of the banded or oriented phase or constituent.


For highly banded microstructures, list the ee1268 values SB’ and l’, calculated in It is best if the etchant used does not reveal grain boundaries within a given phase. Table 1 provides rules for counting asfm Fig. For certain materials, etching may not be necessary as the naturally occurring reectivity differences e1628 the constituents may produce adequate contrast. E — 01 Standard Practice for Assessing the Degree of Banding or Orientation of Asrm This standard is issued under the xed designation E ; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision.

Precision and Bias Align the specimen so that the deformation direction is horizontal on the projection screen. For a two-phase structure, count all of the interceptions of the phase of interest, that is, those that are clearly part of the bands and those that are not.

Hardenability studies have demonstrated this relationship for fully martensitic microstructures in steels rapidly quenched from the prescribed austenitizing temperatures.

It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior qstm use. NOTE 2—Measurements made on the carbides. The degree of orientation can vary from zero completely random distribution to 1. The preparation procedure must reveal the microstructure without excessive inuence from preparation-induced deformation or smearing.

This requires a measurement of the volume fraction, VV, of the banded or oriented phase constituent by point counting see Practice E or other suitable methods.

ASTM E1268 – 01(2016)

Sampling and Test Specimens 7. Do not count phase or constituent boundaries between like particles, grains, or patches. However, depending on the alloy or material being examined, other illumination modes, such as polarized light or differential interference contrast illumination, may be used. As the degree of orientation or banding increases, the anisotropy index increases above one.