The most comprehensive book for HVDC Transmission by: Edward Wilson Kimbark. You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups ” EEE – B ( – )” group. To unsubscribe from this group. Direct current transmission, Volume 1. Front Cover. Edward Wilson Kimbark. Wiley-Interscience, – Technology & Engineering – pages.

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It aided further development ofvalves by permitting them to be tested under service conditions.

B1S The line carried 5. The initiative in exploring the use of mercury-arc valves for dc transmission was taken by the General Electric Company.

Direct Current Transmission – Kimbark

Constant-current operation was chosen because the hot-cathode tubes then used couId not withstand the high short-circuit currents expected to occur on a constant-voItage system. The fortunes ofwar prevented completion ofthe project, and in such plant and pertinent documentsas survived were taken to the U.

The United States was inactive in the field of dc transmission, however, for nearly 20 years. If a permanent fault occurred on the lower conductor, the converters connected to it would be controlled so as to bring the voltage and current on it to zero.

Figure la shows a single-eircuit three-phase ac line.

The capability of ali converters would then be usable, and the power normally carried by two conductors cufrent then be carried by one. One of the mercury-arc valves was replaced by an air-cooled thyristoi’ assem bly, which also has performed well. The current ratings are to A per anode. At present these are not capable of handling the highest voltages and powers required for HV dc transmission.


The distance is far toa great for ac eable transmission. Russian engineers have concentrated on single-anode valves, which so far appear to have been less successful than the ASEA valves. After two smaller experi 2’mentsB1.

Three-phase tines eannot be operated, except for a very short time Iess than 1 sec with one or two conductors open, because such operation causes unbalanced voltages in the ac system and interference in parallel telephone lines.

Direct current transmission – Edward Wilson Kimbark – Google Books

Their ratings have increased, however, with surprising rapidity, and it seems certain that such valves will soon replace mercury-arc valves in HV dc use. The converter at the sending end is called a reetifier, and that at the receiving end an inverter. Curreny three-pole switching is always used to clear permanent faults, although such a fauIt may involve only one conductor.

Direet-current links are classified as shown in Figure 2. M uch of the time when power is delivered to Gotland, there are no generators in operation there, transmissikn only synchronous maehine being a condenser.

Direct Current Transmission – Kimbark – [PDF Document]

Exp1 queda livre Experimento de queda livre. Lamm inhas considerably increased the peak inverse transnission that the kmibark can withstand. Norrnally they operate at equal current; then there is no ground current. Present-day mereury-are valves for high-voltage transmission, known as excitrons, have, in addition to the anode and the mercury-pool cathode, an ignition electrode for starting the arc, one or more excitation electrodes for maintaining the are, and a control grid that prevents the are from reaching the anode until it is desired that the valve begin to conduct.


Aboutcontrol electrodes were added to silicon diodes, giving silicon controlled rectifiers SCRsalso called thyristors.

A noteworthy feature of ASEA valves is the use of several, usually four, anodes in multiple on single-phase valves. Most long overhead ac tines require series compensation of part of the induetive reaetanee.

Each terminal has two converters of equal rated voltages in series on the dc side. This system of grading elec trodes, invented by U.

The tine itself usually has two conductors, aIthough some Iines have only one, the return path being in the earth or seawater or both. The Swedish State Power Board decided to use alternating ‘-eurrent for the north-to-south transmission already mentioned.

The line transmits 20 MW at kV through a single-conductor cable, with return path through the sea and earth. The line initially operated at constant current, the conversions from con stant alternating voltage to constant current and vice versa being made by an LC bridge circuit called the monocyclic square.

After the more rugged steel-envelope mercury-pool ignitron became available, however, the line was converted in to constant-voltage operation. The operation of the line was discontinued in in the belief that nothing more would be learned by continuing it.

This being so, two parallel three-phase circuits are required for reliable transmission see Tranwmission.