KETABKHANEH FARSI PDF

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Persian art or Iranian art has one of the richest art heritages in world history and has been strong in many media including architecturepaintingweavingpotterycalligraphymetalworking and sculpture. At keatbkhaneh times, influences from the art of neighbouring civilizations have been very important, and latterly Persian art gave and received major influences as part of the wider styles of Islamic art. This article covers the art of Persia up toand the end of the Qajar dynasty ; for later art see Iranian modern and contemporary artand for traditional crafts see arts of Iran.

Rock art in Iran is its most ancient surviving art. Iranian architecture is covered at that article. From the Achaemenid Empire of BC— BC for most of the time a farssi Iranian-speaking state has ruled over areas similar to the modern boundaries of Iranand often much wider areas, sometimes called Greater Iranwhere a process of cultural Persianization left enduring results even when rulership separated.

The courts of successive dynasties have generally led the style of Persian art, and court-sponsored art has left many of the most impressive survivals.

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In ancient times the surviving monuments of Persian art are notable for a tradition concentrating on the human figure mostly male, and often royal and animals. Persian art continued to place larger emphasis on figures than Islamic art from other areas, though for religious reasons now generally avoiding large examples, especially in sculpture.

The general Islamic style of dense decoration, geometrically laid out, developed in Persia into a supremely elegant and harmonious style combining motifs derived from plants with Chinese motifs such as the cloud-band, and often animals that are represented at a much smaller scale than the plant elements surrounding them. Under the Safavid dynasty in the 16th century this style was used across a wide variety of media, and diffused from the court artists of the shah, most being mainly painters.

An imitation of the entire state apparatus of Uruk, proto-writingcylinder seals with Sumerian motifs, and monumental architecture, is found at Susa. Susa may have been a colony of Uruk. The exceptional nature of the site is still recognizable today in the artistry of the ceramic vessels that were placed as offerings in a thousand or more graves near the base of the temple platform.

Nearly two thousand pots were recovered from the cemetery most of them now in the Louvre. The vessels found are eloquent testimony to the artistic and technical achievements of their makers, and they hold clues about the organization of the society that commissioned them. Susa I style was very much a product of the past and of influences from contemporary ceramic industries in the mountains of western Iran.

The recurrence in close association of vessels of three types—a drinking goblet or beaker, a serving dish, and a small jar—implies the consumption of three types of food, apparently thought to be as necessary for life in the afterworld as it is in this one. Ceramics of these shapes, which were painted, constitute a large proportion of the vessels from the cemetery. Others are course cooking-type jars and bowls with simple bands painted on them and were probably the grave goods of the sites of humbler citizens as well as adolescents and, perhaps, children.

Although a slow wheel may have been employed, the asymmetry of the vessels and the irregularity of the drawing of encircling lines and bands indicate that most of the work was done freehand. Elamite art, from the south and west of modern Iran shared many characteristics with the neighbouring art of Mesopotamiathough it was often less sophisticated. Cylinder sealssmall figures of worshippers, gods and animals, shallow reliefs, and some large statues of rulers are all found.

There are a small number of very fine gold vessels with relief figures. They probably date to between about and BC. The bronzes tend to be flat and use openworklike the related metalwork of Scythian art.

They represent the art of a nomadic or transhumant people, for whom all possessions needed to be light and portable, and necessary objects such as weapons, finials perhaps for tent-poleshorse-harness fittings, pins, cups and small fittings are highly decorated over their small surface area. The ” Master of Animals ” motif, showing a human positioned between and grasping two confronted animals is common [11] but typically highly stylized.

The Ziwiye hoard of about BC is a collection of objects, mostly in metal, perhaps not all in fact found together, of about the same date, probably showing the art of the Persian cities of the period. Achaemenid art includes frieze reliefs, metalwork, decoration of palaces, glazed brick masonry, fine craftsmanship masonry, carpentry, etc. Most survivals of court art are monumental sculpture, above all the reliefsdouble animal-headed Persian column capitals and other sculptures of Persepolis see below for the few but impressive Achaemenid rock reliefs.

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Although the Persians took artists, with their styles and techniques, from all corners of their empire, they produced not simply a combination of styles, but a synthesis of a new unique Persian style. The rhyton drinking vessel, horn-shaped and usually ending in an animal shape, is the most common type of large metalwork to survive, as in a fine example in New York. There are a number of very fine smaller pieces of jewellery or inlay in precious metal, also mostly featuring animals, and the Oxus Treasure has a wide selection of types.

Small pieces, typically in gold, were sewn to clothing by the elite, and a number of gold torcs have survived. Achaemenid griffin capital at Persepolis. One of a pair of armlets from the Oxus Treasurewhich has lost its inlays of precious stones or enamel. Similar armlets in the “Apadana” reliefs at Persepolisalso bowls and amphorae with griffin handles are given as tribute.

Bas-relief in Persepolis—a symbol in Zoroastrian for Nowruz — eternally fighting bull personifying the moonand a lion personifying the Sun representing the Spring. The large carved rock relieftypically placed high beside a road, and near a source of water, is a common medium in Persian art, mostly used to glorify the king and proclaim Persian control over territory. The Behistun relief and inscriptionmade around BC for Darius the Greatis on a far grander scale, reflecting and proclaiming the power of the Achaemenid empire.

Behistun is unusual in having a large and important inscription, which like the Egyptian Rosetta Stone repeats its text in three different languages, here all using cuneiform script: Old Persian, Elamiteand Babylonian a later form of Akkadian.

Other Persian reliefs generally lack inscriptions, and the kings involved often can only be tentatively identified.

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The problem is helped in the case of the Sasanians by their custom of showing a different style of crown for each king, which can be identified from their coins. Naqsh-e Rustam is the necropolis of the Achaemenid dynasty — BCwith four large tombs cut high into the cliff face.

These have mainly architectural decoration, but the ketabbkhaneh include large panels over the doorways, each very similar in content, with figures of the kehabkhaneh being invested by a god, above a zone with rows of smaller figures bearing tribute, with soldiers and officials. The three classes of figures are sharply differentiated in size. The entrance ketzbkhaneh each tomb is at the centre of each cross, which opens onto a small chamber, where the king lay in a sarcophagus.

Only one has inscriptions and the matching of the other kings to tombs is somewhat speculative; the relief figures are not intended as individualized portraits. The third from the left, identified by an inscription, is the tomb of Darius I the Great c.

The other three are believed to be those of Xerxes I c. The tombs were looted following the conquest of the Achaemenid Empire by Alexander the Great. Well below the Achaemenid tombs, near ground level, are rock reliefs with large figures of Sassanian kings, some meeting gods, others in combat. The most famous shows the Sassanian king Shapur I on horseback, with the Roman Emperor Valerian bowing to him in submission, and Philip the Arab an earlier emperor who paid Shapur tribute holding Shapur’s horse, while the dead Emperor Gordian IIIkilled in battle, lies beneath it other identifications have been suggested.

This commemorates the Battle of Edessa in AD, when Valerian became the only Roman Emperor who was captured as a prisoner of war, a lasting humiliation for the Romans. The placing of these reliefs clearly suggests the Sasanian intention to link themselves with the glories of the earlier Achaemenid Empire.

The seven Sassanian reliefs, whose approximate dates range from to AD, show subjects including investiture scenes and battles. The earliest relief at the site is Elamitefrom about BC. About a kilometre away is Naqsh-e Rajabwith a further four Sasanian rock reliefs, three celebrating kings and one a high priest.

Another important Sasanian site is Taq Bostan with several reliefs including two royal investitures and a famous figure of a cataphract or Persian heavy cavalryman, about twice life size, probably representing the king Khosrow Parviz mounted on his favourite horse Shabdiz ; the pair continued to be celebrated in later Persian literature.

Sassanian reliefs are concentrated in the first 80 years of the dynasty, though one important set are 6th-century, and at relatively few sites, mostly in the Sasanian heartland. The later ones in particular suggest that they draw on a now-lost tradition of similar reliefs in palaces in stucco. The rock reliefs were probably coated in plaster and painted. The rock reliefs of the preceding Persian Selucids and Parthians are generally smaller and more crude, and not all direct royal commissions as the Sasanian ones clearly were.

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This was only uncovered below rubble ketabkhanej recently; an inscription dates it to BC. The standard catalogue of pre-Islamic Persian reliefs lists the known examples as at as follows: The art of the Parthians was a mix of Iranian and Hellenistic styles.

Parthian places are often overlooked in excavations, and Parthian layers difficult to disguish from those around them. Even in narrative representations, figures look frontally out to the viewer rather than at each other, a feature that anticipates the art of Late Antiquitymedieval Ketabkhxneh and Fadsi. Great attention is paid to the details of clothing, which in full-length figures is shown decorated with elaborate designs, probably embroidered, including large figures.

The excavations at Dura-Europos in the 20th century provided many new discoveries. The classical archaeologist and director of the excavations, Michael Rostovtzeffrealized that the art of the first centuries AD, PalmyraDura Europosbut also in Iran up to the Buddhist India followed the same principles. He called this artwork Parthian art. The most characteristic feature of the “Parthian” art ketabkhandh frontality which is not a special feature of Iranic or Parthian art and first appeared in the ketzbkhaneh of Palmyra.

In architecture, patterns in plaster were very popular, almost all now lost. Once the technique was developed these covered large surfaces and perhaps shared elements of their design with carpets and other textiles, also now almost entirely lost. Sasanian artor Sasanian art, was produced under the Sasanian Empire which ruled from the 3rd ketsbkhaneh 7th centuries AD, ketabkhaneg the Muslim conquest of Persia was completed around The resulting Sasanian dynasty would last for four hundred years, ruling modern Iran, Iraq, and much territory to the east and north of modern Iran.

At times the Levant, much of Anatolia and parts of Egypt and Arabia were under its control. It began a new era in Iran and Mesopotamiawhich in many ways was built on Achaemenid traditions, including the art of the period. Ketabkhanfh, there were also other influences on art of the period that came from as ketabkhnaeh as China and the Mediterranean. The surviving art of the Sasanians is best seen in its architecture, reliefs and metalwork, and there are some surviving paintings from what was evidently a widespread production.

Stone reliefs were probably greatly outnumbered by interior ones in plaster, of which only fragments have survived. Free standing sculptures faded out of popularity in this time as compared to keabkhaneh period under the Parthians, but the Colossal Statue of Shapur I r. AD — is a major exception, carved from a stalagmite grown in a cave; [36] there are literary mentions of other colossal statues of kings, now lost.

Surviving Sasanian art depicts courtly and chivalric scenes, with considerable grandeur of style, reflecting the lavish life and display of the Sasanian court as recorded by Ketabkhabeh ambassadors. Images of rulers dominate many of the surviving works, though none are as large as the Colossal Statue of Shapur I. Hunting and battle scenes enjoyed a special popularity, and lightly-clothed dancing girls and entertainers.

Persian art

Representations are often arranged like a coat of arms, which in turn may have ketabkhaeh a strong influence on the production of art in Europe and East Asia. Although Parthian art preferred the front view, the narrative representations of the Sassanian art often features figures shown in the profile or a three-quarter view. Frontal views occur less frequently. One of the few sites where wall-paintings survived in quantity is Panjakent in modern Tajikistanand ancient Sogdiawhich was barely, if at all, under the control of the central Sasanian power.

The old city was abandoned in the decades after the Muslims eventually took the city in and has been extensively excavated in modern times.

Large areas of wall paintings survived from the palace and private houses, which are mostly now in the Hermitage Museum or Tashkent. They covered whole rooms and were accompanied by large quantities of reliefs in wood.

The subjects are similar to other Sasanian art, with enthroned kings, feasts, battles, and beautiful women, and there are illustrations of both Persian and Faarsi epics, as well as a complex mixture of deities. They mostly date from the 7th and 8th centuries. A number of Sasanid silver vessels have survived, especially rather large plates or bowls used to serve food.